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The myth of de Lesseps - human and statue | تاريخ بورسعيد

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Posted by Engineer on October 25, 2015

     Wrote: Mohamed Bayoud

Often haunted the people of Port Said (children and grandchildren) dream return a statue of de Lesseps to its base after it was destroyed at the end of bilateral aggression on Port Said in December 1956 in the hands of the people of Port Said (parents) after he tasted the torment colors during non-war level playing field and aggression - especially from the French invaders - Port Said and their dealings with the people of Port Said without humanity, no respect for the sanctity and even torture of all was located in their hands most of the Fedayeen Port Said agony not to mention the death and destruction.

All that enter into the hearts of parents feeling of revenge against oppressive occupier and that the destruction of his character on the shore of the canal and on the northern entrance and of the statue of the man named "de Lesseps", were numerous stories and multiplied and scattered about who gave the orders to destroy the statue, Sometimes those who accuse the political leadership to give orders destruction, and there are those who deny the charge in all of the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser - especially the actual destruction of the political leadership - and was told that my people have a sense of what we have said from Salva reasons.

In the end the result was that the destruction of the statue and drop this icon on the banks of the canal to be a purely Egyptian channel! , But he drops it was also removed from history? , He drops it has been removed from the people of Port Said on the tongues of those who have even destroyed? , The answer is no.

These days and spin the idea of ​​the statue again, especially after it was restored and outfitted with an arsenal of Port Said Navy, however: Let us before we agree or object to read these lines and then leave the answer to reader in taking the view that he sees, those lines that Znserd where very very briefly the story of de Lesseps all historic neutrality and we will leave you to comment beyond.


Who is the de Lesseps?

Ferdinand de Lesseps was born in the vicinity of Paris suburb of Versailles, France, on November 19, 1805 to the family of ancient roots back several centuries ago. More diplomacy work of its members and their positions known pro-Napoleon. First Oawamh spent in Italy, where he worked with his father and then joined the education in the College of Henry IV in Paris.

In 1803 Napoleon sent an envoy Chksaaala Egypt is Mathieu de Lesseps, Ferdinand's father and was close to the elders of Al-Azhar scholars private (SAB), which was founded by Napoleon in Cairo, and had to pick up in the political vacuum during the period from 1801 to 1805 character Special distinguishes officer Albanian Mohammed Ali approached him before they bring him closer to him and then bring him closer scientists, and soon he took Muhammad Ali ruled Egypt will of the popular summoned Napoleon Mathieu de Lesseps and was replaced by another French is Dorovia and became a political, military and administrative actual advisor to Muhammad Ali. He was Last Matalbh Mathieu de Lesseps of Muhammad Ali before his departure, however, is taking newborn son Ferdinand.

And at the age of twenty-seventh named Ferdinand de Lesseps assistant consul of France in Alexandria in 1832.

De Lesseps close to the efforts of the members of the San Simmonan Association, which has endorsed a draft looper, a French expedition to view the idea of ​​digging the Suez Canal in the attempt in 1833 by their leader Onfantan and presented to the great Muhammad Ali, who faced the idea a great intercept fear that this channel be the cause of the occupation of the architects Egypt as a result of international competition, which will have as evidenced by the days and years following the drilling has already been the British occupation of Egypt by penetrating the Suez Canal and as a result of betrayal de Lesseps, which we will discuss in another place.

De Lesseps was so impressed with the idea incision channel remained just waiting for the right opportunity to be shown again and taking the approval of the drilled to and from Egypt.

It was not the idea of ​​building a canal in the Isthmus of Suez love of Egypt and the Egyptians but it was of interest to the French state specifically that was Chgv location Egypt strategic, one of the colonial powers that were put eyes on Egypt, and also because France was dependent on trade to the east to Egypt by land which has become rivaled the Cape of Good Hope, which was dependent upon Britain, and since the discovery of Cape of Good Hope has hit France marine ports of large losses including Marseille and Genoa port as these ports have relied on trade to Egypt by land, where the ships come to the port of Alexandria and unload their cargoes to carry around land routes to the Suez port shall be re-shipped back towards India and the countries of the East, and this trip has become compared to the path of Cape of Good Hope more expensive as it was next to the loading and unloading operations and transport there was also a tax that was imposed by the niches of the Mamluks, were numerous French ideas on the epochs varying claw channel which was considered if it is constructed is the lifeline of the economy and trade in France.

However, there were also interested in hard-Suez Canal-de Lesseps but has been neglected in the history books thanks to de Lesseps himself perhaps, and this was passionate also called "Ngerelli" It is of Italian citizenship and has had the same ambition de Lesseps but probably closer to de Lesseps from Prince Said, who became ruler after his father may blow up and there Ngerelli, attracted de Lesseps the governor glad his idea and seized by the San Simmonan Association, has been able to clinch the Furman first Imtiaz drilling and Furman second qualifies that uses the Egyptians in the construction of the Suez Canal and opens the door forced wide to carry out his wishes, and I've Britain was a lookout in an attempt to obstruct the implementation of the project in any form, has been put in its way all the obstacles including the fact that they call into question all he does at the Porte Ottoman try broadcasting concern to the Ottomans empire that was possible to be affected by bringing de Lesseps European workers to dig the channel so that the second firman Astsdrh de Lesseps of the governor Said Pasha came to be four-fifths of the workers employed in the implementation of the project and the drilling of the Egyptians.

It was the aim of this text is a political one hand and economically on the other hand, it is intended to alleviate the English for the project opposition unity and dispel the doubts of the Ottoman government and the concerns of France's political aims and intentions happy independence, on the other hand was the adoption of the use of Egyptian workers without the Europeans in the implementation of the project for the benefit on the same channel company, where he was the company's interest that the use of foreign workers in the narrower in scope and limited to the exact artwork that was not the Egyptians familiar with them, it would have been impossible for the company's use of European workers on a large scale in the implementation of the project where wages are high increase far from the Egyptian workers' wages, along with the lack of European workers producing for the Egyptians in such acts, especially since the atmosphere in the isthmus hot zone was not familiar Europeans while accustomed to the Egyptians, and the isthmus area was free of the amenities that accustomed foreigners in their own country.

Therefore, this harsh desert zerofeha what was to attract workers Europeans at that time. Therefore, it is in spite of that article refers to the use of Egyptian workers received in the second franchise in the door of the company's liabilities, but in fact it was more a privilege of which commitment because without the text on the use of Egyptian workers was the implementation of the project will become impossible because the Egyptian workers were only able to carry this hard work.

De Lesseps has wanted to ensure the company's access to what has been reached of Egyptian workers was able to convince the governor to issue a document in which the Egyptian government undertakes to collect Egyptian workers required for excavation work yet to enter the draft Said Pasha, the ICRC, which has embarked on a detailed report in Europe Want to know certain means that you will get the company through which the workers and the wages of these workers to be addressed from the company and the cost of living in the isthmus until the ICRC can estimate the implementation of the project an accurate estimate of the expenses detailed in its way.

Said Pasha to the desire of de Lesseps has responded he issued from Alexandria on July 20, 1856 to list the name of national workers in the work of the Suez Canal, and not least that the argument put forward by de Lesseps to convince Said Pasha issuing this regulation were not only trick that the project costs in the joint report of the International Commission it has not changed in the preliminary draft, or in the summary report of the International Committee itself.


At the forefront of this regulation Said Pasha, the purposes for which it is intended issuance of a guarantee the implementation of the Suez Canal and then work to ensure good treatment of the company's Egyptian workers clearer and finally take care of the interests of farmers and land owners. Despite the absence Regulations materials of the term of forced labor, some of these items were overflowing in the sense of forced labor, stipulates Article I of Regulation eleven that "the Egyptian government is offering the workers who will work in the company works based on applications submitted by the company's engineer, according to business needs", has been This article was extremely serious that reflect the gravity of the burden that gave the Egyptian people, it was a flexible material in which the number of workers did not identify, did not stipulate a limit to the number can not be exceeded, but was to provide the government of Egyptian workers depend on the needs of workers and highly appreciated the company's engineers, this was - There is no doubt - the company's interest to affect the interests of the Egyptian people.


And despite the fact that Article III of the Regulation has provided for the growing seasons into account when determining the number of workers needed in the works of the canal, however, de Lesseps did not restrict himself to this article but ignored and stuck to rule first on the country's account.


Article II has shown interest in determining the wages of workers and dates repaid their food issues and provide Allzim water for drinking, and despite the fact that this article set wages based on the average wages paid in the excavation work, however, this limitation it involves a lot of injustice because of the surrounding work in the Canal Zone of harsh conditions such as traveling long and hard conditions of the isthmus itself. It is also despite the fact that this article provided for the payment of workers' wages in cash at the end of each week, the company retained the right to detain pay fifteen days of each worker to ensure that no abandonment of work, if the worker continued working until the end received the amount reserved, but if gave up Group on the work and deliberately to escape this amount wasted it, the company has wanted this action to avoid what they expect from the flight of workers from the yards of drilling the end of the period specified for them before, and for this reason also imposed Article V of the Regulation materials sanctions on workers who are trying to escape and shows This is all on the existence of an element of coercion in the use of Egyptian workers in the excavation work in the Canal Zone. They can not leave the yard work especially has been imposed on them heavily guarded as they travel from their country in order to prevent their escape on their way to the isthmus area, as imposed on them severe censorship in the work area to prevent escape or lax work, it took advantage of Regulation harsh regime that prevailed in Egypt and on the basis of Article III stint factor identified in the excavation work was determined by including roads and bridges interest in the implementation of public projects.


Has come under Article IV of the question of maintaining security in the Canal Zone stipulating that the government officers and men who carry out acts of police in the area but obey large orders the company's engineers are working within the limits of his instructions, and thus the local Egyptian authorities have become the subject Canal Zone to an employee in the canal company .. any prejudice This ??


The sixth article has paid attention dwellings and health care workers, and Article VII that the company bear the transfer of workers from their country to the squares drilling expenses, but it did not provide for the company to bear the expenses of the return of workers to their villages !! , However, the Egyptian government has ceased to channel the burden of these expenses the company and the government ensured the transfer of workers at their own expense in the Nile rail or ships.


It thus became possible for the canal company - thanks to this regulation - to get a huge crowd of workers can be counted on to perform all actions required by the project therefore was Regulations great gain for the company so I've exploited by de Lesseps during his propaganda in England during the month of April in 1857 where he explained that The company will not lack the Egyptian workers, but they will get a great abundance and low wages. It was Egyptian peasants collecting from various villages and travel to arenas drill see troops, traveling at their own expense to the government channel area, contrary to commitments made by the company in the list.

The group operates in the excavation work one month and returns to his village after him. Despite the announcement by de Lesseps it will use mechanical machines in excavation work will not exceed what is used by workers four or five thousand so as not to get hurt agriculture in Egypt, the number of peasants who leave their agricultural jobs has reached sixty thousand each month have twenty thousand of them those in charge to work actually, and like them on their way back to their country, and a similar number of yards on their way to the pits. This brings the total land Avtqdthm peasants who reached 720 thousand every year, a huge number, especially since Egypt's population at that time did not exceed five million.


Workers have had is suffering during the month they spend in drilling operations, was often death reap numbers of them due to lack of water, was the company responsible for doing so because they desire to strengthen its position in the European public opinion overlooked the foregoing that pledged about to start digging the canal water fresh that were necessary for the supply of workers engaged in digging the canal marine fresh drinking water, and began digging a channel first Navy which led to the death of workers of thirst in the desert of the isthmus. It is also despite the fact that the company established some aid stations, the epidemics that soon spread among the workers Kalrmd and dysentery and respiratory diseases, typhoid and cholera, and she spent quite a few of the workers.


As for wages, the company did not adhere to the assigned by the list of workers in terms of wages of workers on the basis of working days they have worked, but went in determining the wage of the worker on the basis of production (Almoktuaah) and fixed for that low wages were between fifty and fifty-seven pounds and a half a month, spend including on food and cigarettes, and part of it goes into the pockets of contractors so that barely anything left for the worker of his wages when he returned to his village. Despite these meager wages the company has procrastinated in payment, not to mention the extreme cruelty in the treatment of workers and Alcirbej who was working under the blows.


Forced labor was not limited at this point but the channel involved the company eventually gross compensation in exchange for the abolition of forced labor in the era of Ismail !!.


De has canceled a humanitarian space and borders in dealing with the Egyptian worker, it was not interested in this topic that falls in front of people, but he wants to fulfill his project even if the bodies of the Egyptians, and I've Egyptians took place between a rock and a hard place, it was the hammer is de Lesseps and, behind it France, the state was the governor anvil is non-Egyptian in origin.


After this very rapid narrative omission and lots and lots of the many details that you choose the son of Port Said to put the statue on its base and develop new statue as I heard the governor Said Port Said on the grounds that named after? Or you will have another opinion?.




Sources: -

(1) Book of the Suez Canal project between the followers of Saint-Simon and Ferdinand de Lesseps - Author d. Mahmoud Saleh forgotten - history teacher at the University of Al-Azhar

(2) Book of the Suez Canal history and its problems, and according to the Egyptian and European documents unpublished - written by Angelo Samarco - translation loyalty Afifi, Haytham Kamal safety, Huda Salih Abdul Ati


Author of the article: the founder of the history of Port Said


Mohamed Bayoud


24 October 2015